Messages are redelivered to a client when any of the following occurs:
The broker transmits the default delivery policy that he prefers to a client connection in his BrokerInfo command packet. But the client can override the policy settings by using the ActiveMQConnection.getRedeliveryPolicy() method:
Once a message's redelivery attempts exceeds the maximumRedeliveries configured for the Redelivery Policy, a "Poison ack" is sent back to the broker letting him know that the message was considered a poison pill. The Broker then takes the message and sends it to a Dead Letter Queue so that it can be analyzed later on.
The default Dead Letter Queue in ActiveMQ is called ActiveMQ.DLQ; all undeliverable messages will get sent to this queue and this can be difficult to manage. So, you can set an "individualDeadLetterStrategy" in the destination policy map of the activemq.xml configuration file, which allows you to specify a specific dead letter queue prefix for a given queue or topic. You can apply this strategy using wild card if you like so that all queues get their own dead-letter queue, as is shown in the example below.
See the Redelivery Policy section for some more detail on the policy options.
Some folks simply need expired messages to be discarded instead of sent to the DLQ (i.e., skip the DLQ entirely). This simplifies the management of the DLQ so that you're not sifting through loads of expired messages to find messages with real problems. To tell ActiveMQ to just discard expired messages, configure the processExpired property to false on a dead letter strategy:
By default, ActiveMQ will not place undeliverable non-persistent messages on the dead-letter queue. The rationale for this behavior is that if the application doesn't care enough to make the message persistent, then there is little or no value in recording that the message was undeliverable. If you do want to place non-persistent messages on the dead-letter queue, then you should set processNonPersistent="true" on the dead-letter strategy.
A very simple yet very useful plugin to the broker. This plugin allows the configuration of queues and topics, all or matched based on Java SE regular expressions, to drop messages that have been sent to the DLQ. This is extremely useful when using constant pending message limit strategy or the other eviction rules, but you don't want to incur the overhead of yet another consumer to clear the DLQ.
Below is an example of a basic configuration to drop everything:
Below is a slightly more complex example:
Below is an even more complex example:
Typically a consumer handles redelivery so that it can maintain message order while a message appears as inflight on the broker.
The familiar Redelivery Policy has been extended to take a matching destination.