Security

This chapter describes how security works with Apache ActiveMQ Artemis and how you can configure it. To disable security completely simply set the security-enabled property to false in the broker.xml file.

For performance reasons security is cached and invalidated every so long. To change this period set the property security-invalidation-interval, which is in milliseconds. The default is 10000 ms.

Tracking the Validated User

To assist in security auditing the populate-validated-user option exists. If this is true then the server will add the name of the validated user to the message using the key _AMQ_VALIDATED_USER. For JMS and Stomp clients this is mapped to the key JMSXUserID. For users authenticated based on their SSL certificate this name is the name to which their certificate's DN maps. If security-enabled is false and populate-validated-user is true then the server will simply use whatever user name (if any) the client provides. This option is false by default.

Role based security for addresses

Apache ActiveMQ Artemis contains a flexible role-based security model for applying security to queues, based on their addresses.

As explained in Using Core, Apache ActiveMQ Artemis core consists mainly of sets of queues bound to addresses. A message is sent to an address and the server looks up the set of queues that are bound to that address, the server then routes the message to those set of queues.

Apache ActiveMQ Artemis allows sets of permissions to be defined against the queues based on their address. An exact match on the address can be used or a wildcard match can be used.

Eight different permissions can be given to the set of queues which match the address. Those permissions are:

  • createAddress. This permission allows the user to create an address fitting the match.

  • deleteAddress. This permission allows the user to delete an address fitting the match.

  • createDurableQueue. This permission allows the user to create a durable queue under matching addresses.

  • deleteDurableQueue. This permission allows the user to delete a durable queue under matching addresses.

  • createNonDurableQueue. This permission allows the user to create a non-durable queue under matching addresses.

  • deleteNonDurableQueue. This permission allows the user to delete a non-durable queue under matching addresses.

  • send. This permission allows the user to send a message to matching addresses.

  • consume. This permission allows the user to consume a message from a queue bound to matching addresses.

  • browse. This permission allows the user to browse a queue bound to the matching address.

  • manage. This permission allows the user to invoke management operations by sending management messages to the management address.

For each permission, a list of roles who are granted that permission is specified. If the user has any of those roles, he/she will be granted that permission for that set of addresses.

Let's take a simple example, here's a security block from broker.xml file:

<security-setting match="globalqueues.europe.#">
   <permission type="createDurableQueue" roles="admin"/>
   <permission type="deleteDurableQueue" roles="admin"/>
   <permission type="createNonDurableQueue" roles="admin, guest, europe-users"/>
   <permission type="deleteNonDurableQueue" roles="admin, guest, europe-users"/>
   <permission type="send" roles="admin, europe-users"/>
   <permission type="consume" roles="admin, europe-users"/>
</security-setting>

Using the default wildcard syntax the # character signifies "any sequence of words". Words are delimited by the . character. Therefore, the above security block applies to any address that starts with the string "globalqueues.europe.".

Only users who have the admin role can create or delete durable queues bound to an address that starts with the string "globalqueues.europe."

Any users with the roles admin, guest, or europe-users can create or delete temporary queues bound to an address that starts with the string "globalqueues.europe."

Any users with the roles admin or europe-users can send messages to these addresses or consume messages from queues bound to an address that starts with the string "globalqueues.europe."

The mapping between a user and what roles they have is handled by the security manager. Apache ActiveMQ Artemis ships with a user manager that reads user credentials from a file on disk, and can also plug into JAAS or JBoss Application Server security.

For more information on configuring the security manager, please see 'Changing the Security Manager'.

There can be zero or more security-setting elements in each xml file. Where more than one match applies to a set of addresses the more specific match takes precedence.

Let's look at an example of that, here's another security-setting block:

<security-setting match="globalqueues.europe.orders.#">
   <permission type="send" roles="europe-users"/>
   <permission type="consume" roles="europe-users"/>
</security-setting>

In this security-setting block the match 'globalqueues.europe.orders.#' is more specific than the previous match 'globalqueues.europe.#'. So any addresses which match 'globalqueues.europe.orders.#' will take their security settings only from the latter security-setting block.

Note that settings are not inherited from the former block. All the settings will be taken from the more specific matching block, so for the address 'globalqueues.europe.orders.plastics' the only permissions that exist are send and consume for the role europe-users. The permissions createDurableQueue, deleteDurableQueue, createNonDurableQueue, deleteNonDurableQueue are not inherited from the other security-setting block.

By not inheriting permissions, it allows you to effectively deny permissions in more specific security-setting blocks by simply not specifying them. Otherwise it would not be possible to deny permissions in sub-groups of addresses.

Security Setting Plugin

Aside from configuring sets of permissions via XML these permissions can alternatively be configured via a plugin which implements org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server.SecuritySettingPlugin e.g.:

<security-settings>
   <security-setting-plugin class-name="org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server.impl.LegacyLDAPSecuritySettingPlugin">
      <setting name="initialContextFactory" value="com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory"/>
      <setting name="connectionURL" value="ldap://localhost:1024"/>
      <setting name="connectionUsername" value="uid=admin,ou=system"/>
      <setting name="connectionPassword" value="secret"/>
      <setting name="connectionProtocol" value="s"/>
      <setting name="authentication" value="simple"/>
   </security-setting-plugin>
</security-settings>

Most of this configuration is specific to the plugin implementation. However, there are two configuration details that will be specified for every implementation:

  • class-name. This attribute of security-setting-plugin indicates the name of the class which implements org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server.SecuritySettingPlugin.

  • setting. Each of these elements represents a name/value pair that will be passed to the implementation for configuration purposes.

See the JavaDoc on org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server.SecuritySettingPlugin for further details about the interface and what each method is expected to do.

Available plugins

LegacyLDAPSecuritySettingPlugin

This plugin will read the security information that was previously handled by LDAPAuthorizationMap and the cachedLDAPAuthorizationMap in Apache ActiveMQ 5.x and turn it into Artemis security settings where possible. The security implementations of ActiveMQ 5.x and Artemis don't match perfectly so some translation must occur to achieve near equivalent functionality.

Here is an example of the plugin's configuration:

<security-setting-plugin class-name="org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server.impl.LegacyLDAPSecuritySettingPlugin">
   <setting name="initialContextFactory" value="com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory"/>
   <setting name="connectionURL" value="ldap://localhost:1024"/>
   <setting name="connectionUsername" value="uid=admin,ou=system"/>
   <setting name="connectionPassword" value="secret"/>
   <setting name="connectionProtocol" value="s"/>
   <setting name="authentication" value="simple"/>
</security-setting-plugin>
  • class-name. The implementation is org.apache.activemq.artemis.core.server.impl.LegacyLDAPSecuritySettingPlugin.

  • initialContextFactory. The initial context factory used to connect to LDAP. It must always be set to com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory (i.e. the default value).

  • connectionURL. Specifies the location of the directory server using an ldap URL, ldap://Host:Port. You can optionally qualify this URL, by adding a forward slash, /, followed by the DN of a particular node in the directory tree. For example, ldap://ldapserver:10389/ou=system. The default is ldap://localhost:1024.

  • connectionUsername. The DN of the user that opens the connection to the directory server. For example, uid=admin,ou=system. Directory servers generally require clients to present username/password credentials in order to open a connection.

  • connectionPassword. The password that matches the DN from connectionUsername. In the directory server, in the DIT, the password is normally stored as a userPassword attribute in the corresponding directory entry.

  • connectionProtocol. Currently the only supported value is a blank string. In future, this option will allow you to select the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for the connection to the directory server. Note: this option must be set explicitly to an empty string, because it has no default value.

  • authentication. Specifies the authentication method used when binding to the LDAP server. Can take either of the values, simple (username and password, the default value) or none (anonymous). Note: Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) authentication is currently not supported.

  • destinationBase. Specifies the DN of the node whose children provide the permissions for all destinations. In this case the DN is a literal value (that is, no string substitution is performed on the property value). For example, a typical value of this property is ou=destinations,o=ActiveMQ,ou=system (i.e. the default value).

  • filter. Specifies an LDAP search filter, which is used when looking up the permissions for any kind of destination. The search filter attempts to match one of the children or descendants of the queue or topic node. The default value is (cn=*).

  • roleAttribute. Specifies an attribute of the node matched by filter, whose value is the DN of a role. Default value is uniqueMember.

  • adminPermissionValue. Specifies a value that matches the admin permission. The default value is admin.

  • readPermissionValue. Specifies a value that matches the read permission. The default value is read.

  • writePermissionValue. Specifies a value that matches the write permission. The default value is write.

  • enableListener. Whether or not to enable a listener that will automatically receive updates made in the LDAP server and update the broker's authorization configuration in real-time. The default value is true.

The name of the queue or topic defined in LDAP will serve as the "match" for the security-setting, the permission value will be mapped from the ActiveMQ 5.x type to the Artemis type, and the role will be mapped as-is.

ActiveMQ 5.x only has 3 permission types - read, write, and admin. These permission types are described on their website. However, as described previously, ActiveMQ Artemis has 9 permission types - createAddress, deleteAddress, createDurableQueue, deleteDurableQueue, createNonDurableQueue, deleteNonDurableQueue, send, consume, browse, and manage. Here's how the old types are mapped to the new types:

  • read - consume, browse
  • write - send
  • admin - createAddress, deleteAddress, createDurableQueue, deleteDurableQueue, createNonDurableQueue, deleteNonDurableQueue

As mentioned, there are a few places where a translation was performed to achieve some equivalence.:

  • This mapping doesn't include the Artemis manage permission type since there is no type analogous for that in ActiveMQ 5.x.

  • The admin permission in ActiveMQ 5.x relates to whether or not the broker will auto-create a destination if it doesn't exist and the user sends a message to it. Artemis automatically allows the automatic creation of a destination if the user has permission to send message to it. Therefore, the plugin will map the admin permission to the 4 aforementioned permissions in Artemis.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Transport

When messaging clients are connected to servers, or servers are connected to other servers (e.g. via bridges) over an untrusted network then Apache ActiveMQ Artemis allows that traffic to be encrypted using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) transport.

For more information on configuring the SSL transport, please see Configuring the Transport.

User credentials

Apache ActiveMQ Artemis ships with two security manager implementations:

  • The legacy, deprecated ActiveMQSecurityManager that reads user credentials, i.e. user names, passwords and role information from properties files on the classpath called artemis-users.properties and artemis-roles.properties.

  • The flexible, pluggable ActiveMQJAASSecurityManager which supports any standard JAAS login module. Artemis ships with several login modules which will be discussed further down. This is the default security manager.

JAAS Security Manager

When using the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) much of the configuration depends on which login module is used. However, there are a few commonalities for every case. The first place to look is in bootstrap.xml. Here is an example using the PropertiesLogin JAAS login module which reads user, password, and role information from properties files:

<jaas-security domain="PropertiesLogin"/>

No matter what login module you're using, you'll need to specify it here in bootstrap.xml. The domain attribute here refers to the relevant login module entry in login.config. For example:

PropertiesLogin {
    org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule required
        debug=true
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.user="artemis-users.properties"
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.role="artemis-roles.properties";
};

The login.config file is a standard JAAS configuration file. You can read more about this file on Oracle's website. In short, the file defines:

  • an alias for an entry (e.g. PropertiesLogin)

  • the implementation class for the login module (e.g. org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule)

  • a flag which indicates whether the success of the login module is required, requisite, sufficient, or optional (see more details on these flags in the JavaDoc

  • a list of configuration options specific to the login module implementation

By default, the location and name of login.config is specified on the Artemis command-line which is set by etc/artemis.profile on linux and etc\artemis.profile.cmd on Windows.

Dual Authentication

The JAAS Security Manager also supports another configuration parameter - certificate-domain. This is useful when you want to authenticate clients connecting with SSL connections based on their SSL certificates (e.g. using the CertificateLoginModule discussed below) but you still want to authenticate clients connecting with non-SSL connections with, e.g., username and password. Here's an example of what would go in bootstrap.xml:

<jaas-security domain="PropertiesLogin" certificate-domain="CertLogin"/>

And here's the corresponding login.config:

PropertiesLogin {
   org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule required
       debug=false
       org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.user="artemis-users.properties"
       org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.role="artemis-roles.properties";
};

CertLogin {
   org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.TextFileCertificateLoginModule required
       debug=true
       org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.user="cert-users.properties"
       org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.role="cert-roles.properties";
};

When the broker is configured this way then any client connecting with SSL and a client certificate will be authenticated using CertLogin and any client connecting without SSL will be authenticated using PropertiesLogin.

JAAS Login Modules

GuestLoginModule

Allows users without credentials (and, depending on how it is configured, possibly also users with invalid credentials) to access the broker. Normally, the guest login module is chained with another login module, such as a properties login module. It is implemented by org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.GuestLoginModule.

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.guest.user - the user name to assign; default is "guest"

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.guest.role - the role name to assign; default is "guests"

  • credentialsInvalidate - boolean flag; if true, reject login requests that include a password (i.e. guest login succeeds only when the user does not provide a password); default is false

  • debug - boolean flag; if true, enable debugging; this is used only for testing or debugging; normally, it should be set to false, or omitted; default is false

There are two basic use cases for the guest login module, as follows:

  • Guests with no credentials or invalid credentials.

  • Guests with no credentials only.

The following snippet shows how to configure a JAAS login entry for the use case where users with no credentials or invalid credentials are logged in as guests. In this example, the guest login module is used in combination with the properties login module.

activemq-domain {
  org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule sufficient
      debug=true
      org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.user="artemis-users.properties"
      org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.role="artemis-roles.properties";

  org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.GuestLoginModule sufficient
      debug=true
      org.apache.activemq.jaas.guest.user="anyone"
      org.apache.activemq.jaas.guest.role="restricted";
};

Depending on the user login data, authentication proceeds as follows:

  • User logs in with a valid password — the properties login module successfully authenticates the user and returns immediately. The guest login module is not invoked.

  • User logs in with an invalid password — the properties login module fails to authenticate the user, and authentication proceeds to the guest login module. The guest login module successfully authenticates the user and returns the guest principal.

  • User logs in with a blank password — the properties login module fails to authenticate the user, and authentication proceeds to the guest login module. The guest login module successfully authenticates the user and returns the guest principal.

The following snipped shows how to configure a JAAS login entry for the use case where only those users with no credentials are logged in as guests. To support this use case, you must set the credentialsInvalidate option to true in the configuration of the guest login module. You should also note that, compared with the preceding example, the order of the login modules is reversed and the flag attached to the properties login module is changed to requisite.

activemq-guest-when-no-creds-only-domain {
    org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.GuestLoginModule sufficient
        debug=true
       credentialsInvalidate=true
       org.apache.activemq.jaas.guest.user="guest"
       org.apache.activemq.jaas.guest.role="guests";

    org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule requisite
        debug=true
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.user="artemis-users.properties"
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.role="artemis-roles.properties";
};

Depending on the user login data, authentication proceeds as follows:

  • User logs in with a valid password — the guest login module fails to authenticate the user (because the user has presented a password while the credentialsInvalidate option is enabled) and authentication proceeds to the properties login module. The properties login module successfully authenticates the user and returns.

  • User logs in with an invalid password — the guest login module fails to authenticate the user and authentication proceeds to the properties login module. The properties login module also fails to authenticate the user. The net result is authentication failure.

  • User logs in with a blank password — the guest login module successfully authenticates the user and returns immediately. The properties login module is not invoked.

PropertiesLoginModule

The JAAS properties login module provides a simple store of authentication data, where the relevant user data is stored in a pair of flat files. This is convenient for demonstrations and testing, but for an enterprise system, the integration with LDAP is preferable. It is implemented by org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.PropertiesLoginModule.

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.user - the path to the file which contains user and password properties

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.properties.role - the path to the file which contains user and role properties

  • reload - boolean flag; whether or not to reload the properties files when a modification occurs; default is false

  • debug - boolean flag; if true, enable debugging; this is used only for testing or debugging; normally, it should be set to false, or omitted; default is false

In the context of the properties login module, the artemis-users.properties file consists of a list of properties of the form, UserName=Password. For example, to define the users system, user, and guest, you could create a file like the following:

system=manager
user=password
guest=password

Passwords in artemis-users.properties can be hashed. Such passwords should follow the syntax ENC(<hash>). Hashed passwords can easily be added to artemis-users.properties using the user CLI command, e.g.:

./artemis user add --username guest --password guest --role admin

This will use the default org.apache.activemq.artemis.utils.DefaultSensitiveStringCodec to perform a "one-way" hash of the password and alter both the artemis-users.properties and artemis-roles.properties files with the specified values.

The artemis-roles.properties file consists of a list of properties of the form, Role=UserList, where UserList is a comma-separated list of users. For example, to define the roles admins, users, and guests, you could create a file like the following:

admins=system
users=system,user
guests=guest

LDAPLoginModule

The LDAP login module enables you to perform authentication and authorization by checking the incoming credentials against user data stored in a central X.500 directory server. For systems that already have an X.500 directory server in place, this means that you can rapidly integrate ActiveMQ Artemis with the existing security database and user accounts can be managed using the X.500 system. It is implemented by org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.LDAPLoginModule.

  • initialContextFactory - must always be set to com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory

  • connectionURL - specify the location of the directory server using an ldap URL, ldap://Host:Port. You can optionally qualify this URL, by adding a forward slash, /, followed by the DN of a particular node in the directory tree. For example, ldap://ldapserver:10389/ou=system.

  • authentication - specifies the authentication method used when binding to the LDAP server. Can take either of the values, simple (username and password), GSSAPI (Kerberos SASL) or none (anonymous).

  • connectionUsername - the DN of the user that opens the connection to the directory server. For example, uid=admin,ou=system. Directory servers generally require clients to present username/password credentials in order to open a connection.

  • connectionPassword - the password that matches the DN from connectionUsername. In the directory server, in the DIT, the password is normally stored as a userPassword attribute in the corresponding directory entry.

  • saslLoginConfigScope - the scope in JAAS configuration (login.config) to use to obtain Kerberos initiator credentials when the authentication method is SASL GSSAPI. The default value is broker-sasl-gssapi.

  • connectionProtocol - currently, the only supported value is a blank string. In future, this option will allow you to select the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) for the connection to the directory server. This option must be set explicitly to an empty string, because it has no default value.

  • userBase - selects a particular subtree of the DIT to search for user entries. The subtree is specified by a DN, which specifes the base node of the subtree. For example, by setting this option to ou=User,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system, the search for user entries is restricted to the subtree beneath the ou=User,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system node.

  • userSearchMatching - specifies an LDAP search filter, which is applied to the subtree selected by userBase. Before passing to the LDAP search operation, the string value you provide here is subjected to string substitution, as implemented by the java.text.MessageFormat class. Essentially, this means that the special string, {0}, is substituted by the username, as extracted from the incoming client credentials.

    After substitution, the string is interpreted as an LDAP search filter, where the LDAP search filter syntax is defined by the IETF standard, RFC 2254. A short introduction to the search filter syntax is available from Oracle's JNDI tutorial, Search Filters.

    For example, if this option is set to (uid={0}) and the received username is jdoe, the search filter becomes (uid=jdoe) after string substitution. If the resulting search filter is applied to the subtree selected by the user base, ou=User,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system, it would match the entry, uid=jdoe,ou=User,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system (and possibly more deeply nested entries, depending on the specified search depth—see the userSearchSubtree option).

  • userSearchSubtree - specify the search depth for user entries, relative to the node specified by userBase. This option is a boolean. false indicates it will try to match one of the child entries of the userBase node (maps to javax.naming.directory.SearchControls.ONELEVEL_SCOPE). true indicates it will try to match any entry belonging to the subtree of the userBase node (maps to javax.naming.directory.SearchControls.SUBTREE_SCOPE).

  • userRoleName - specifies the name of the multi-valued attribute of the user entry that contains a list of role names for the user (where the role names are interpreted as group names by the broker's authorization plug-in). If you omit this option, no role names are extracted from the user entry.

  • roleBase - if you want to store role data directly in the directory server, you can use a combination of role options (roleBase, roleSearchMatching, roleSearchSubtree, and roleName) as an alternative to (or in addition to) specifying the userRoleName option. This option selects a particular subtree of the DIT to search for role/group entries. The subtree is specified by a DN, which specifes the base node of the subtree. For example, by setting this option to ou=Group,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system, the search for role/group entries is restricted to the subtree beneath the ou=Group,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system node.

  • roleName - specifies the attribute type of the role entry that contains the name of the role/group (e.g. C, O, OU, etc.). If you omit this option the full DN of the role is used.

  • roleSearchMatching - specifies an LDAP search filter, which is applied to the subtree selected by roleBase. This works in a similar manner to the userSearchMatching option, except that it supports two substitution strings, as follows:

    • {0} - substitutes the full DN of the matched user entry (that is, the result of the user search). For example, for the user, jdoe, the substituted string could be uid=jdoe,ou=User,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system.

    • {1} - substitutes the received username. For example, jdoe.

      For example, if this option is set to (member=uid={1}) and the received username is jdoe, the search filter becomes (member=uid=jdoe) after string substitution (assuming ApacheDS search filter syntax). If the resulting search filter is applied to the subtree selected by the role base, ou=Group,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system, it matches all role entries that have a member attribute equal to uid=jdoe (the value of a member attribute is a DN).

      This option must always be set to enable role searching because it has no default value. Leaving it unset disables role searching and the role information must come from userRoleName.

      If you use OpenLDAP, the syntax of the search filter is (member:=uid=jdoe).

  • roleSearchSubtree - specify the search depth for role entries, relative to the node specified by roleBase. This option can take boolean values, as follows:

    • false (default) - try to match one of the child entries of the roleBase node (maps to javax.naming.directory.SearchControls.ONELEVEL_SCOPE).

    • true — try to match any entry belonging to the subtree of the roleBase node (maps to javax.naming.directory.SearchControls.SUBTREE_SCOPE).

  • authenticateUser - boolean flag to disable authentication. Useful as an optimisation when this module is used just for role mapping of a Subject's existing authenticated principals; default is false.

  • referral - specify how to handle referrals; valid values: ignore, follow, throw; default is ignore.

  • debug - boolean flag; if true, enable debugging; this is used only for testing or debugging; normally, it should be set to false, or omitted; default is false

Add user entries under the node specified by the userBase option. When creating a new user entry in the directory, choose an object class that supports the userPassword attribute (for example, the person or inetOrgPerson object classes are typically suitable). After creating the user entry, add the userPassword attribute, to hold the user's password.

If you want to store role data in dedicated role entries (where each node represents a particular role), create a role entry as follows. Create a new child of the roleBase node, where the objectClass of the child is groupOfNames. Set the cn (or whatever attribute type is specified by roleName) of the new child node equal to the name of the role/group. Define a member attribute for each member of the role/group, setting the member value to the DN of the corresponding user (where the DN is specified either fully, uid=jdoe,ou=User,ou=ActiveMQ,ou=system, or partially, uid=jdoe).

If you want to add roles to user entries, you would need to customize the directory schema, by adding a suitable attribute type to the user entry's object class. The chosen attribute type must be capable of handling multiple values.

CertificateLoginModule

The JAAS certificate authentication login module must be used in combination with SSL and the clients must be configured with their own certificate. In this scenario, authentication is actually performed during the SSL/TLS handshake, not directly by the JAAS certificate authentication plug-in. The role of the plug-in is as follows:

  • To further constrain the set of acceptable users, because only the user DNs explicitly listed in the relevant properties file are eligible to be authenticated.

  • To associate a list of groups with the received user identity, facilitating integration with the authorization feature.

  • To require the presence of an incoming certificate (by default, the SSL/TLS layer is configured to treat the presence of a client certificate as optional).

The JAAS certificate login module stores a collection of certificate DNs in a pair of flat files. The files associate a username and a list of group IDs with each DN.

The certificate login module is implemented by the following class:

org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.TextFileCertificateLoginModule

The following CertLogin login entry shows how to configure certificate login module in the login.config file:

CertLogin {
    org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.TextFileCertificateLoginModule
        debug=true
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.user="users.properties"
        org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.role="roles.properties";
};

In the preceding example, the JAAS realm is configured to use a single org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.TextFileCertificateLoginModule login module. The options supported by this login module are as follows:

  • debug - boolean flag; if true, enable debugging; this is used only for testing or debugging; normally, it should be set to false, or omitted; default is false

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.user - specifies the location of the user properties file (relative to the directory containing the login configuration file).

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.role - specifies the location of the role properties file (relative to the directory containing the login configuration file).

  • reload - boolean flag; whether or not to reload the properties files when a modification occurs; default is false

In the context of the certificate login module, the users.properties file consists of a list of properties of the form, UserName=StringifiedSubjectDN or UserName=/SubjectDNRegExp/. For example, to define the users, system, user and guest as well as a hosts user matching several DNs, you could create a file like the following:

system=CN=system,O=Progress,C=US
user=CN=humble user,O=Progress,C=US
guest=CN=anon,O=Progress,C=DE
hosts=/CN=host\\d+\\.acme\\.com,O=Acme,C=UK/

Note that the backslash character has to be escaped because it has a special treatment in properties files.

Each username is mapped to a subject DN, encoded as a string (where the string encoding is specified by RFC 2253). For example, the system username is mapped to the CN=system,O=Progress,C=US subject DN. When performing authentication, the plug-in extracts the subject DN from the received certificate, converts it to the standard string format, and compares it with the subject DNs in the users.properties file by testing for string equality. Consequently, you must be careful to ensure that the subject DNs appearing in the users.properties file are an exact match for the subject DNs extracted from the user certificates.

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.user - specifies the location of the user properties file (relative to the directory containing the login configuration file).

  • org.apache.activemq.jaas.textfiledn.role - specifies the location of the role properties file (relative to the directory containing the login configuration file).

  • reload - boolean flag; whether or not to reload the properties files when a modification occurs; default is false

In the context of the certificate login module, the users.properties file consists of a list of properties of the form, UserName=StringifiedSubjectDN. For example, to define the users, system, user, and guest, you could create a file like the following:

system=CN=system,O=Progress,C=US
user=CN=humble user,O=Progress,C=US
guest=CN=anon,O=Progress,C=DE

Each username is mapped to a subject DN, encoded as a string (where the string encoding is specified by RFC 2253). For example, the system username is mapped to the CN=system,O=Progress,C=US subject DN. When performing authentication, the plug-in extracts the subject DN from the received certificate, converts it to the standard string format, and compares it with the subject DNs in the users.properties file by testing for string equality. Consequently, you must be careful to ensure that the subject DNs appearing in the users.properties file are an exact match for the subject DNs extracted from the user certificates.

Note: Technically, there is some residual ambiguity in the DN string format. For example, the domainComponent attribute could be represented in a string either as the string, DC, or as the OID, 0.9.2342.19200300.100.1.25. Normally, you do not need to worry about this ambiguity. But it could potentially be a problem, if you changed the underlying implementation of the Java security layer.

The easiest way to obtain the subject DNs from the user certificates is by invoking the keytool utility to print the certificate contents. To print the contents of a certificate in a keystore, perform the following steps:

  1. Export the certificate from the keystore file into a temporary file. For example, to export the certificate with alias broker-localhost from the broker.ks keystore file, enter the following command:

    keytool -export -file broker.export -alias broker-localhost -keystore broker.ks -storepass password
    

    After running this command, the exported certificate is in the file, broker.export.

  2. Print out the contents of the exported certificate. For example, to print out the contents of broker.export, enter the following command:

    keytool -printcert -file broker.export
    

    Which should produce output similar to that shown here:

    Owner: CN=localhost, OU=broker, O=Unknown, L=Unknown, ST=Unknown, C=Unknown
    Issuer: CN=localhost, OU=broker, O=Unknown, L=Unknown, ST=Unknown, C=Unknown
    Serial number: 4537c82e
    Valid from: Thu Oct 19 19:47:10 BST 2006 until: Wed Jan 17 18:47:10 GMT 2007
    Certificate fingerprints:
             MD5:  3F:6C:0C:89:A8:80:29:CC:F5:2D:DA:5C:D7:3F:AB:37
             SHA1: F0:79:0D:04:38:5A:46:CE:86:E1:8A:20:1F:7B:AB:3A:46:E4:34:5C
    

    The string following Owner: gives the subject DN. The format used to enter the subject DN depends on your platform. The Owner: string above could be represented as either CN=localhost,\ OU=broker,\ O=Unknown,\ L=Unknown,\ ST=Unknown,\ C=Unknown or CN=localhost,OU=broker,O=Unknown,L=Unknown,ST=Unknown,C=Unknown.

The roles.properties file consists of a list of properties of the form, Role=UserList, where UserList is a comma-separated list of users. For example, to define the roles admins, users, and guests, you could create a file like the following:

admins=system
users=system,user
guests=guest

The simplest way to make the login configuration available to JAAS is to add the directory containing the file, login.config, to your CLASSPATH.

Kerberos Authentication

You must have the Kerberos infrastructure set up in your deployment environment before the server can accept Kerberos credentials. The server can acquire its Kerberos acceptor credentials by using JAAS and a Kerberos login module. The JDK provides the Krb5LoginModule which executes the necessary Kerberos protocol steps to authenticate and obtain Kerberos credentials.

GSSAPI SASL Mechanism

Using SASL over AMQP, Kerberos authentication is supported using the GSSAPI SASL mechanism. With SASL doing Kerberos authentication, TLS can be used to provide integrity and confidentially to the communications channel in the normal way.

The GSSAPI SASL mechanism must be enabled on the AMQP acceptor in broker.xml by adding it to the saslMechanisms list url parameter: saslMechanisms="GSSAPI<,PLAIN, etc>.

<acceptor name="amqp">tcp://0.0.0.0:5672?protocols=AMQP;saslMechanisms=GSSAPI</acceptor>

The GSSAPI mechanism implementation on the server will use a JAAS configuration scope named amqp-sasl-gssapi to obtain it's Kerberos acceptor credentials. An alternative configuration scope can be specified on the AMQP acceptor using the url parameter: saslLoginConfigScope=<some other scope>.

An example configuration scope for login.config that will pick up a Kerberos keyTab for the Kerberos acceptor Principal amqp/localhost is as follows:

amqp-sasl-gssapi {
    com.sun.security.auth.module.Krb5LoginModule required
    isInitiator=false
    storeKey=true
    useKeyTab=true
    principal="amqp/localhost"
    debug=true;
};

Role Mapping

On the server, the Kerberos authenticated Peer Principal can be added to the Subject's principal set as an Apache ActiveMQ Artemis UserPrincipal using the Apache ActiveMQ Artemis Krb5LoginModule login module. The PropertiesLoginModule or LDAPLoginModule can then be used to map the authenticated Kerberos Peer Principal to an Apache ActiveMQ Artemis Role. Note that the Kerberos Peer Principal does not exist as an Apache ActiveMQ Artemis user, only as a role member.

org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.Krb5LoginModule required
    ;
org.apache.activemq.artemis.spi.core.security.jaas.LDAPLoginModule optional
    initialContextFactory=com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory
    connectionURL="ldap://localhost:1024"
    authentication=GSSAPI
    saslLoginConfigScope=broker-sasl-gssapi
    connectionProtocol=s
    userBase="ou=users,dc=example,dc=com"
    userSearchMatching="(krb5PrincipalName={0})"
    userSearchSubtree=true
    authenticateUser=false
    roleBase="ou=system"
    roleName=cn
    roleSearchMatching="(member={0})"
    roleSearchSubtree=false
    ;

TLS Kerberos Cipher Suites

The legacy rfc2712 defines TLS Kerberos cipher suites that can be used by TLS to negotiate Kerberos authentication. The cypher suites offered by rfc2712 are dated and insecure and rfc2712 has been superseded by SASL GSSAPI. However, for clients that don't support SASL (core client), using TLS can provide Kerberos authentication over an unsecure channel.

SASL

AMQP supports SASL. The following mechanisms are supported; PLAIN, EXTERNAL, ANONYMOUS, GSSAPI. The published list can be constrained via the amqp acceptor saslMechanisms property. Note: EXTERNAL will only be chosen if a subject is available from the TLS client certificate.

Changing the username/password for clustering

In order for cluster connections to work correctly, each node in the cluster must make connections to the other nodes. The username/password they use for this should always be changed from the installation default to prevent a security risk.

Please see Management for instructions on how to do this.

Securing the console

Artemis comes with a web console that allows user to browse Artemis documentation via an embedded server. By default the web access is plain HTTP. It is configured in bootstrap.xml:

<web bind="http://localhost:8161" path="web">
    <app url="console" war="console.war"/>
</web>

Alternatively you can edit the above configuration to enable secure access using HTTPS protocol. e.g.:

<web bind="https://localhost:8443"
    path="web"
    keyStorePath="${artemis.instance}/etc/keystore.jks"
    keyStorePassword="password">
    <app url="jolokia" war="jolokia-war-1.3.5.war"/>
</web>

As shown in the example, to enable https the first thing to do is config the bind to be an https url. In addition, You will have to configure a few extra properties desribed as below.

  • keyStorePath - The path of the key store file.

  • keyStorePassword - The key store's password.

  • clientAuth - The boolean flag indicates whether or not client authentication is required. Default is false.

  • trustStorePath - The path of the trust store file. This is needed only if clientAuth is true.

  • trustStorePassword - The trust store's password.

Controlling JMS ObjectMessage deserialization

Artemis provides a simple class filtering mechanism with which a user can specify which packages are to be trusted and which are not. Objects whose classes are from trusted packages can be deserialized without problem, whereas those from 'not trusted' packages will be denied deserialization.

Artemis keeps a black list to keep track of packages that are not trusted and a white list for trusted packages. By default both lists are empty, meaning any serializable object is allowed to be deserialized. If an object whose class matches one of the packages in black list, it is not allowed to be deserialized. If it matches one in the white list the object can be deserialized. If a package appears in both black list and white list, the one in black list takes precedence. If a class neither matches with black list nor with the white list, the class deserialization will be denied unless the white list is empty (meaning the user doesn't specify the white list at all).

A class is considered as a 'match' if

  • its full name exactly matches one of the entries in the list.
  • its package matches one of the entries in the list or is a sub-package of one of the entries.

For example, if a class full name is "org.apache.pkg1.Class1", some matching entries could be:

  • org.apache.pkg1.Class1 - exact match.
  • org.apache.pkg1 - exact package match.
  • org.apache -- sub package match.

A * means 'match-all' in a black or white list.

Config via Connection Factories

To specify the white and black lists one can use the URL parameters deserializationBlackList and deserializationWhiteList. For example, using JMS:

ActiveMQConnectionFactory factory = new ActiveMQConnectionFactory("vm://0?deserializationBlackList=org.apache.pkg1,org.some.pkg2");

The above statement creates a factory that has a black list contains two forbidden packages, "org.apache.pkg1" and "org.some.pkg2", separated by a comma.

Config via system properties

There are two system properties available for specifying black list and white list:

  • org.apache.activemq.artemis.jms.deserialization.whitelist - comma separated list of entries for the white list.
  • org.apache.activemq.artemis.jms.deserialization.blacklist - comma separated list of entries for the black list.

Once defined, all JMS object message deserialization in the VM is subject to checks against the two lists. However if you create a ConnectionFactory and set a new set of black/white lists on it, the new values will override the system properties.

Config for resource adapters

Message beans using a JMS resource adapter to receive messages can also control their object deserialization via properly configuring relevant properties for their resource adapters. There are two properties that you can configure with connection factories in a resource adapter:

  • deserializationBlackList - comma separated values for black list
  • deserializationWhiteList - comma separated values for white list

These properties, once specified, are eventually set on the corresponding internal factories.

Config for REST interface

Apache Artemis REST interface (Rest) allows interactions between jms client and rest clients. It uses JMS ObjectMessage to wrap the actual user data between the 2 types of clients and deserialization is needed during this process. If you want to control the deserialization for REST, you need to set the black/white lists for it separately as Apache Artemis REST Interface is deployed as a web application. You need to put the black/white lists in its web.xml, as context parameters, as follows

<web-app>
    <context-param>
        <param-name>org.apache.activemq.artemis.jms.deserialization.whitelist</param-name>
        <param-value>some.allowed.class</param-value>
    </context-param>
    <context-param>
        <param-name>org.apache.activemq.artemis.jms.deserialization.blacklist</param-name>
        <param-value>some.forbidden.class</param-value>
    </context-param>
...
</web-app>

The param-value for each list is a comma separated string value representing the list.

Masking Passwords

For details about masking passwords in broker.xml please see the Masking Passwords chapter.

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